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Nakedi Mathews Phosa (born 1 September 1952, Bushbuckridge (Mpumalanga Province)) is a South African attorney and politician and was also an anti-apartheid activist. He is a former premier of Mpumalanga as well as a former member of the National Executive Committee of the African National Congress (ANC).

Phosa was born in Mbombela township, Nelspruit. However, he grew up with his grandfather in a rural area near Potgietersrus (Mokopane). He matriculated at Orhovelani High School in Thulamahashe. He was one of the first four members of the ANC to enter South Africa from exile in 1990 in order to start the process of negotiation with the National Party government.

As a result of the first fully inclusive democratic elections in 1994, Phosa was appointed as the first premier of Mpumalanga, a position which he held until 1999. During his time in office, Phosa pioneered planning interaction between the private sector and government. He also spearheaded Nelson Mandela's reconciliation initiatives between the government and the Afrikaans speaking community. Phosa was elected as a member of the National Executive Committee of the ANC in 1999.

During the recent Conference of the ANC (the 52nd National Conference) held in Polokwane in the Limpopo Province, Phosa was elected to the post of Treasurer General for the Organisation.